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Title: General Natural Features
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The entire county is within the valley of the Wabash, which river forms the southeastern boundary. The largest tributary of the Wabash is Big Pine creek, that enters the county in Adams township from the north, then flows southwesterly across Pine township, thence southeasterly through Liberty, emptying into the Wabash river at Attica. Little Pine creek flows from the north through Medina township and the eastern part of Warren. Kickapoo creek rises in Medina, flows across southeastern Adams and across western Warren. Mud Pine creek drains all the western territory of Pine township and Eastern prairie, and joins Big Pine creek near the northern line of Liberty. Rock creek takes its rise in Liberty and flows southward, forming the boundary between Washington and Pike townships. Redwood creek rises in Jordan, traverses the townships of Steuben and Pike and reaches the Wabash with a southeasterly course. Opossum run rises in Steuben township, flows southeast across Kent and Wabash. Jordan creek drains southern Prairie and northern Jordan townships and flows southwest into the Vermillion river, in Illinois. Gopher creek drains western Kent and the greater portion of Mound, uniting with the Wabash in Vermillion county. Other lesser streams are Fall creek, Dry creek, Little creek, Coal run, Hall's Branch, Salt's run, West Kickapoo creek, and Chesapeake run.

State Geologist John Collet, in his report made in the seventies, had the following to say concerning the topographical features of Warren county:

"The topographical features of Warren county are agreeably varied. The western and northern parts, embracing more than half its area, present a broad stretch of Grand Prairie. The surface is undulating, or generally rolling, and offers ample facilities for drainage, without any or but little waste lands; while from the tops of any of the slight knolls or prairie ridges the eye is delighted with miles of corn fields or leagues of blue grass pasture and meadow land, diversified with island groves or their partings of timber. Adjoining the prairie region to the south and east is a high belt of rolling or hilly land, that descends gently to the abrupt bluffs which the Wabash and the creeks that flow into it have cut down through the underlying coal measures, conglomerate sand rocks, and deep into the subcarboniferous formation. The soil of this belt is mostly yellowish clay, imported by rivers anciently flowing at this level. It is rich in tree food, and was originally clothed in a dense forest of oak, hickory, ash, walnut, poplar, beech, maple and other large trees, beech and sugar trees predominating on the reddish clay soils, and oaks on drift clays or sandy soils. The bluffs along the Wabash river and the principal creeks are from eight to one hundred and fifty feet in height, and are of romantic boldness. The tops of several stations are crowned with pines and cedars, and the sides are generally curtained with living walls of conglomerate of subcarboniferous sand rocks.

"The soil is usually sandy, largely mixed with decayed leaves and other vegetable matter, and is in effect a rich garden mold. At an elevation of from sixty to ninety feet near the channel of the river are found wide areas of the more ancient alluvial formation, as the Mound prairie, in the southern portion of the county, and the 'Barrens,' south of Williamsport and southwest of Independence. The soil of this formation is generally warm, black loam, but sometimes sand or colder clays predominate. It is unerlaid by gravel, sand of the rounded fragments of sand stone, and from the wide range of the deposit, extending miles on either side of the river, and from the great depth and uniformity of the material, we may date back the ages of these terraces to the time when they served as flood plains of the Wabash, then a mighty river miles in width, which poured, in a broad channel vexed with numerous islands of comglomerate sand rock, the surplus waters of Lake Erie to the sea.

"Still higher, reaching up to the most elevated point in the county, and full two hundred feet above the bed of the Wabash river, are found the oldest alluvium terraces and banks of modified drift gravels and sand, as at Walnut Grove, in Prairie township. These signalize the infancy of the river when an insignificant and currentless stream with uncertain course, the Wabash, traversing all the region for thirty to forty miles on either side, sometimes flowing around through Illinois, sought by the line of the least resistance the easiest pathway to the mouth of the valley of the continent.

[Page 201-202.]

Date: 1/1/1913
Origin: Past and Present of Fountain and Warren Counties Indiana
Author: Thomas A. Clifton, Editor
Record ID: 00001563
Type: Book
Source Archive: Williamsport-Washington Township Public Library
Date Entered: 8/10/2001
Collection: Williamsport-Washington Township Public Library
Entered By: Leslie J. Rice

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